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Chiffon cake failure-breaking waist-causes and solutions-✧

シフォンケーキ腰折れ

Chiffon cake failure pattern 3rd-Broken waist-

Failure of the third chiffon cake.
“Broken waist”

Bent waist means that the side part of the chiffon cake taken out of the mold is bent.

Chiffon cake failure

Why does such a “breaking waist” occur?

6 main causes

1. The meringue is weak
2. Insufficient mixing of final dough
3. Insufficient baking / low oven temperature
4. Excessive water
5. Molding is quick (it wasn’t cooled properly)
6. Others (recipe) (insufficient emulsification of egg yolk dough)

Chiffon cake Cause of broken waist
Part 1: The meringue is weak

It is often said that “meringue is the life” when making chiffon cake, but the condition of the meringue also plays a major role here.
In a nutshell, when the meringue is loose, the waist breaks.
However, “No, that’s not the case! Be careful and make a nice glossy meringue (T_T)? ].

In that case, what can be considered
◎ Egg white had a lot of water (eggs in summer)
◎ Influence of the type of sugar used to make meringue (brown sugar, sugar with high water content, etc.)
I think there are two.

First, about the water content of egg white
This is just a matter of the material itself, and the chicken is alive and it depends on the climate, so it is necessary to take countermeasures.

There are four countermeasures!
1. Use dried egg whites
2. Use cornstarch
3. Whisk egg whites while cooling them with ice water (I think it’s a hassle, but when I try it, I’m surprised at the difference!)
4. Do not make meringue in a hot room ← (I tend to do it often …)

First of all, the role of dried egg whites is, why is it better to use dried egg whites for summer egg whites?

In the summer, chickens also get dry and drink a lot of water. As a result, the water content of the eggs also increases, and the heat causes stress on the chickens, which reduces the amount of protein in the egg whites.

↓ (The Q & A of the Japan Egg Industry Association is interesting because it describes eggs in great detail) ↓

Because it is hot in the summer, chickens are also stressed. Egg white solids under stress
The amount (protein amount) is reduced. In addition, eggs are exposed to high temperatures in the summer.
The pH of the egg white rises quickly because it becomes longer and the carbon dioxide in the protein escapes faster.
increase. When this happens, the polymerization of ovomucin, which makes up the tissue of thick egg white, breaks down and becomes watery.
To do. For these reasons, egg whites in summer are thought to look watery.
-Quoted from the Japan Egg Industry Association website-

Egg whites are said to be able to produce highly stable meringues when (1) pH is close to neutral and (2) protein concentration is high, but summer eggs are in a low protein concentration state for the reasons mentioned above.

Dried egg whites come into play here.

By adding dried egg white, the protein concentration of the egg white increases and you can make a stable meringue as usual.
(By the way, it seems that the pH of eggs tends to become alkaline as they get older. In that case, use lemon juice (acidic) to bring the pH closer to neutral to improve stability.)

If you don’t have dried egg whites, you can also use cornstarch.

Unlike dried egg whites, cornstarch can be easily obtained at ordinary supermarkets, and the price is a little less than 100 yen (it can be used for cooking such as fried chicken as well as making chiffon cake).

Cornstarch has the effect of increasing the viscosity of the meringue and increasing its stability by adsorbing the water content of the egg white.

By the way, why is it cornstarch? Is it not possible to use the more familiar potato starch?
I wonder if the reason is the ratio of starch grains in cornstarch and the temperature and condition of gelatinization.
I understand that cornstarch is the closest thing to the starchy state of wheat flour. (Potato starch has a large difference in starch grains from wheat flour)
(From the characteristics of starch grains in the science of sweets “kotsu” by Masako Kawada)

↓ For reference, the usage and amount of dried egg white and cornstarch are also described ↓

👉Dried egg whites

It says that about 5% is added to the egg whites used (from cotta products), but I use about 2g for egg whites from 140g to 160g.
It is used by mixing it with the sugar used to make meringue.
Attention here!
I think it depends on the type of dried egg white, but dried egg white is not very familiar with sugar.
If you make meringue with sugar that has dried egg white lumps, the lumps will not disappear …
Mix lightly with a spoon! Let’s not wear sideways ← Experienced person (T_T)

↓ It is convenient to have a small whisk (I am 100 average)! Let’s mix well ↓

Before
Mix dried egg whites with sugar to prevent the chiffon cake from breaking.
After
Mix dried egg whites and sugar well as shown in the figure to prevent the chiffon cake from breaking.

👉Cornstarch
You can mix it with the sugar used to make the meringue, or add it at the same time as the sugar you add at the end of the meringue making.
You can make either one, but if you put it at the end of making the meringue, you can see that the state of the meringue changes at once, so that is recommended.
The amount is about 5g to 7g for 120g to 160g meringue.

When I first used cornstarch, I still remember being astonished at how the meringue changed so much in an instant! That’s how powerful it is for meringue in the summer.
(Since I learned about the existence of dried egg whites, I have only dried egg whites …)

However, depending on the recipe you are using, if you use cornstarch, you may feel the baked chiffon cake feel dry, so I think it would be good if you could incorporate it in consultation with the recipe and your own taste.

Next, about the effect on the type of sugar
This is based on what I personally felt … (There is no basis)

There was a time when I used to bake chiffon cake with millet sugar, sugar beet, and sugar beet, aiming for a chiffon cake that is kind to the body.
What I realized then was that the timing of the sugar added to the egg whites had to be changed depending on the type of sugar used, and as a result, the quality and finish of the meringue also changed considerably.

In the case of coarse-grained sugar, it takes longer to dissolve in the egg white than granulated sugar, so it is necessary to add it to the egg white earlier than usual and adjust the stirring (hand mixer) speed.
It took me a long time to notice this … I’ve burned a lot of broken and stiff failed chiffon (T_T)

This adjustment is quite difficult … (even if you stand firmly, it tends to be a weak meringue)
I’m only using granulated sugar right now.

cotta(コッタ) 細目グラニュー糖 1kg
cotta(コッタ)
¥1,126(2021/09/14 19:12Time)
原材料:原料糖(さとうきび、甜菜) 原産国:日本

From such a failure experience, when making meringue using brown sugar,
I feel that it is necessary to pay attention to the two points of “Is the meringue loose?” And “Is the meringue finished after the sugar has melted properly?”

If someone is using sugar other than granulated sugar and is suffering from a broken back …
It will be improved if you add sugar to the egg white earlier, extend the time it takes to make meringue (it takes longer than when using granulated sugar), and be conscious of making meringue in your eyes.

But again, this decision is very difficult (it was very difficult for me …)
I feel that the easiest solution is to use the dried egg whites and cornstarch mentioned above.

✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧✧

Egg white in the summer when the amount of water and protein changes and the stability is significantly reduced.
In order to bake as usual with the usual recipe, some measures are still required.

Those who want to bake a stable and delicious chiffon cake at any time, not only in the summer, or those who live in hot areas, I think that it is good to use it everyday (* ^^ *)
(I use dried egg whites every time (^^))

Chiffon cake Cause of broken waist
Part 2: Insufficient mixing of the final dough

Is it common sense in making sweets that the meringue is crushed and the amount of dough is reduced if the final sponge-based dough made by whipping eggs is mixed too much? That’s right (^^)
The same reasoning is that if you don’t mix enough, the amount of dough will be large.

If you bake a chiffon cake with a large amount of final dough due to insufficient mixing, the swelling will be large.
However, because there are not enough pillars (yolk and gluten) to support the bulge, it will shrink and become a bent chiffon.

It depends on the recipe and flavor, so I can’t say it unconditionally.
If you are suffering from a broken back, one of the solutions is to increase the number of times the final dough is mixed.
(The guideline for the finish of the final dough is that it is glossy and has a fluidity that can be poured into the mold. In a smooth state, it is mixed too much (maybe it depends on the recipe. It is not certain.) )

👉For reference, the final dough for a plain chiffon cake with a scent of vanilla

Chiffon cake Cause of broken waist
Part 3: Insufficient baking / low oven temperature

Oven problems that also appear here!
Even if you don’t have any problems making the dough, you may get sick due to the effects of the oven.

Insufficient baking.
This can be resolved by firmly following the guidelines for baking chiffon cake.
(After swelling to MAX, the swelling has deflated to some extent and settled down for 3 to 5 minutes)
If there is no problem in making the dough or the meringue, the side is browned, and there is only a slight bending of the waist, I think that it is often solved by baking firmly.

If the oven temperature is low.
If the side of the chiffon cake taken out of the mold is very light in color, it is possible that the oven temperature is low (heat conduction is poor).
If the overall color is light, raise the preheating temperature and bake. It is necessary to adjust the overall oven temperature, such as setting the temperature 10 degrees higher than the specified baking temperature.

If the upper part (where cracks are formed) is well browned, but only the sides are lightly browned, you can change the baking method.
I think this is more common for people who put it on the top plate and bake it …
1. Is the top plate preheated? → If the top plate was not inserted at the time of preheating, preheat the entire top plate.
2. Remove the top plate and place it directly or place a net to bake → If the top plate is preheated but the side surface is light in color, place it directly or place it on a net and bake.

I think you should try two methods.

What is the correct answer! Not because it is compatible with the oven,
It’s hard to get the habit of your oven, but I hope this solves it.

Chiffon cake Cause of broken waist
Part 4: Excessive water

This is often the case when using fruits that contain a lot of water, such as bananas.
It also happens when the amount of egg white is large.

Chiffon cake is a sweet whose finish changes considerably depending on the balance of the composition.
Most people measure the amount of ingredients when using fruits such as bananas, but many do not measure the amount of egg whites they use each time.
The reason is that the recipe says M size ○ pieces / L size ○ pieces.

It’s a story that the creator has nothing to do with just following the instructions …

It is also true that this is a big pitfall (T_T)

We strongly recommend that you measure the amount of egg white each time!

Many recipes are simply described as M size eggs and L size eggs, but the amount of egg white varies depending on the manufacturer and season.

There are many cases where a large egg yolk is contained in an L size egg and the amount of egg white is equal to or less than that of the M size.
Of course, the opposite is true (I personally experience and feel it).

So, again, measure the amount of egg whites every time.
Then, remember the amount of egg white when you succeed, select and break the egg as close as possible to the amount at that time, and you will be able to bake a stable success chiffon.
(I intentionally buy eggs of various sizes so that I can adjust the amount of egg white according to the flavor etc.)

Chiffon cake Cause of broken waist
Part 5: Molding is quick (not cooled properly)

You will want to serve the cake as soon as it is baked.
Isn’t it raised? Did you fail? That feeling that makes me want to get out of the mold quickly! The more it hurts, the better I understand.

As you can see, if you don’t cool down properly, it will eventually lead to the failure of breaking your back (crying).

If there is a person who touches the side of the chiffon cake and thinks “OK! It’s cold!” ..

It’s okay if the inside of the middle cylinder is as cold as the side of the mold.
The solution is to put up with it for a while until it cools down! !! !! Is (* ^^ *)

Chiffon cake Cause of broken waist
Part 6: Others (recipe) (yolk dough)

If none of the causes of failure listed above apply.
This is a case where the compatibility of <recipe, mold, and mold removal method> is involved in a complex manner.

Since chiffon cake is a simple ingredient, its composition and taste are diverse.

My favorite chiffon cake is
“Fluffy and fluffy. However, it is a chiffon cake that has the appropriate elasticity to return when pressed.
The vanilla-scented plain chiffon cake also has such a composition …

Plain Chiffon Cake Recipe
How to make a Plain Chiffon Cake Recipe. From the origin of the chiffon cake recipe, preparation, procedure of how to make, tips and points that will not fail, voice of making it is released! This recipe is recommended for those who are suffering from bottom raising, clogging, and shrinkage. Please enjoy the plain super fluffy chiffon cake recipe with vanilla scent!

When “Fuwashuwa Recipe” + “Tall type” + “Removal” overlap, it seems that the waist may break (T_T).

In the case of a chiffon cake with a large amount of flour and elasticity, it is unlikely that it will break when removed by hand.
My plain chiffon recipe may not fit well … (> <)
(Is there any other recipe called fluffy?)

Next, the egg yolk dough may be broken due to insufficient emulsification.
↓ The waist fold caused by insufficient emulsification of the yolk dough becomes such a drum-like waist fold ↓

Chiffon cake with a broken waist

Under-emulsified egg yolk dough breaks the meringue foam into techmen during baking.
Such a bent chiffon is in a fluffy state with no elasticity or elasticity, with the texture of the cut cross section flowing horizontally.

Chiffon cake Cause of broken waist / How to eliminate it
~ Summary ~

Briefly the main causes of waist breaks and how to eliminate them!

Causes of broken waist 1 Weak meringue (eggs in summer)
Elimination method: Use dried egg white (recommended) / cornstarch

Cause of waist break 2 Insufficient mixing of final dough
Elimination method: Mix until the final dough has a gloss and moderate fluidity.

Cause of bending of the waist 3 Insufficient firing ・ The firing temperature is low
Solution: Bake firmly / raise the temperature and bake

Causes of hip breakage 4 Excessive water
How to solve: Weigh egg whites every time / Be careful of foods with high water content

Cause of hip break 5 Quick mold release
How to solve it: Touch the inside of the inner cylinder to judge whether it has cooled down firmly!

Causes of broken waist 6 Others (recipe and insufficient emulsification)
How to solve Recipes that are not suitable for removal should be removed in other ways. Emulsify the egg yolk dough using a hand mixer!

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